Choosing a Javascript library for Zope


What's AJAX ?

(If you know it, you should skip this section)

Wikipedia says:

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML, or Ajax, is a web development technique for
creating interactive web applications using a combination of:
- XHTML (or HTML) and CSS for marking up and styling information
- The Document Object Model manipulated through JavaScript to dynamically
display and interact with the information presented
- The XMLHttpRequest object to exchange data asynchronously with the web
server. (XML is commonly used, although any format will work, including
preformatted HTML, plain text, JSON and even EBML)
Like DHTML, LAMP, or SPA, Ajax is not a technology in itself, but a term
that refers to the use of a group of technologies together. In fact,
derivative/composite technologies based substantially upon Ajax, such as
AFLAX, are already appearing.

(full definition here: What's AJAX ?)

In other words, AJAX allows a developer to make calls to the server from the
loaded page with Javascript, and change the page based on the server's
answer without having to do a complete page reload.

Since the publishing machinery is not involved, a asynchronous round-trip is
very fast and allow big ergonomics improvments. This is due to the fact that
asyncrhonous calls are made over server methods that just quickly renders
the needed datas, in opposition to a regular call that calculates and renders
a full page.

Why should we care of AJAX in Zope applications ?

AJAX isn't just the latest buzz word out there you can show up in your
applications (the come-here-we-have-some effect), AJAX is not this latest and
coolest technological thing all hype developers should know about.

AJAX is not the web UI silver bullet either.

AJAX is just a tool that let you focus on something that often get lost,
when creating a web applications: people.

I believe this is the main reason of AJAX success: developers are
able to greatly enhance their users experience with a few drops of

Examples of use cases:

  • A select box value is changed, the values of a second one are reloaded.

  • Direct edition of page parts (see CPSWiki for instance)

  • Content panel that changes on user actions

  • Forms are checked before actually sent (see CPSMailAccess email editor)

  • etc..

People can argue there are a lot of caveats on this (for example, using the
'back' button of the navigator can brake it) but it improves so much the
flexibility of a web application and make web app as reactive as desktop

A recent Ajax Survey shows us that AJAX is used in real applications
everywhere. Even if the amount of developers that have answered this survey is
not big, it also brings a good idea on what tools are actually used to do

Zope is not apart from the main web developpers stream, and can use any
AJAX library out there. AJAX libraries have different approaches, explained in
the next section.

Different libraries approaches

There are several kind of libraries available to work with AJAX:

  • Low-level client-side frameworks (LLF)

  • Client-side Application frameworks (CSF)

  • Server-side Javascript generation frameworks (SSF)

  • XForm approach framework (XFF)

  • Other frameworks

Low-level client-side frameworks

Low-level Javascript libraries provide a simple piping to access the server by
wrapping XMLHTTPRequest objects and let the developper perfom DOM manipulation
with the server's answer.

Most of these libraries are a thin layer that provides a portable API for these
actions, and other utilies like:

  • XPath query APIs


  • etc.

Example of such libraries are: Sarissa, XHConn, LibXMLHttpRequest
(non GPL), etc.

Here's a small example of a simple AJAX call in Sarissa:

Sarissa.updateContentFromURI = function(sFromUrl, oTargetElement, xsltproc) {
try{ = "wait";
var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();"GET", sFromUrl);
function sarissa_dhtml_loadHandler() {
if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4) { = "auto";
Sarissa.updateContentFromNode(xmlhttp.responseXML, oTargetElement, xsltproc);
xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = sarissa_dhtml_loadHandler;
xmlhttp.send(null); = "auto";
catch(e){ = "auto";
throw e;

Sarissa takes care of all portability aspects to allow this code to work under
most navigators that implements Javascript. These simple libraries provide a
quick and simple way to use asynchronous calls on a web view.

Google has also released its XSLT/XPath JavaScript engine as an open source project:

Client-side application frameworks

Most of the time, client-side application frameworks provide the same features
than Low-level client-side frameworks, but also brings a higher level,
component-oriented, set of APIs.

These APIs let the developer work on client-side like he or she would do in a
desktop app with a classical GUI toolkit. The style and the amount of
javascript code produced are very dependent on the library, and the developer
is quite driven by the toolkit.

For example, toolkits like Prototype provides a object-oriented way to work
in Javascript, and therefore changes a lot how Javascript is used in a web
application and its importance in the architecture.

This example show how to create a class hierarchy with Prototype:

function Manager () {
this.reports = [];
Manager.prototype = new Employee;
function WorkerBee () {
this.projects = [];
WorkerBee.prototype = new Employee;
function SalesPerson () {
this.dept = "sales";
this.quota = 100;
SalesPerson.prototype = new WorkerBee;

Some toolkits also provide very high level functionnalities that let the
developper implement common AJAX use cases in a few lines. OpenRico, which
is built on the top of Prototype, is one of those.

For example, adding a nice fade effect in OpenRico is done with a single

new Effect.FadeTo('fadeMe',
.2, // 20% opacity
500, // 500ms (1/2 second)
10, // 10 steps
{complete:function() {setStatus('done fading element.',
1500);}} );

Complex use cases, like live grids, can be provided as well. See OpenRico
live grid demo

Client-side application frameworks also provide other developper tools like:

  • Unit-testing framework integration, like ECMAUnit or Test.Simple

  • Debuggers

  • Different protocol for client-server dialogs (XML, JSON)

The learning curve involved by these frameworks worth it, as they bring to
Javascript what we have in Python.

  • Javascript? huh! I don't want to use it

  • What if you can actually use object oriented programming in it ?

  • I always get thousands of errors in a few lines of Javascript

  • What if you can debug it ?

  • Is there any pop corn left ?

Server-side Javascript generation frameworks

Server-side Javascript generation is generally based on the
no-javascript-skills-needed paradigm: the developper creates code on server
side, using the server's language using specific APIs, or a specific model.
The framework then automatically generates the right HTML and Javascript
elements and sends them to the client. Sometime this generation is made
on client sied with a javascript engine.

CrackAjax is one of those for Python, and let the developper create
AJAX views:

import crackajax
import cherrypy
import ituneslib
class iTunesAjaxPage(crackajax.AjaxPage):
def do_search():
def get_all_songs(self):
return [self.SONGS]
def search_songs(self, query):
query = query.lower()
return [filter(lambda s: self.does_song_match(query, s),
cherrypy.root = iTunesAjaxPage(ituneslib.Library("Library.xml"), "")

The serverside decorator tags the methods to become an XML-RPC call, and the
clientside automatically convert Python code into client-side javascript,
using Python-to-JScript .NET compiler.

There are also less radical approaches, where the framework provides APIs to
describe the javascript that needs to be created, using for example a
descriptive langage that covers explicit behaviors. (see Azax approach).

XForm approach frameworks

Section to be completed (see FormFaces)

Other frameworks

They are many other hybrid approaches that mixes server-side and client-side,
or approaches that provides even lower-level mecanisms.

They are not detailed here because they are often tighted to a particular web
framework or don't bring more features that what we would have in other types.

Choosing a library

For CPS , and moreover for Zope-based applications, an AJAX library has to be
taken in CSF category or SSF, since all functionalities available in LLF
exists in CSF. The next sections provide a very quick review on existing

SSF Libraries



  • straight-forward: a server side approach, like CrackAjax or Azax,
    provides a straight-forward tool to add Ajax features in a web application,
    by hiding the Javascript layers from the developer with techniques
    that can be compared to Template MetaProgramming, and providing a
    meta langage or a set of APIs in the web application native language.


  • not so hidden: as you can see in this CrackAjax example, the code
    written in Python is very similar to what you would have done in Javascript.
    Furthermore, it's a bit of magic since the given Python code cannot
    be unit tested howsoever (the 'document' variable does not exists on Python



  • clean architecture: Sometime the SSF approach is also meant to
    drive the developper to cleary separate the Controller and the Interface.
    For example Azax xml templates provides a way to separate the behavior of
    a page and the UI, example of separation: Azax page behavior / Azax page template

  • includes a link to mochikit, allowing hybrid behaviors


  • one more layer: This clean separation can be done straight
    forward in Javascript, without adding a layer, but describing behaviors
    in XML can also be seen as more portable and readable, because the
    code could work without Javascript, wich is just the last layer
    This approach is very similar to what XUL has in XBL Events,
    but this is a bit of Not Invented Here.

CSF Libraries

A quite complete survey at OSA foundation is available and EDevil's blog
has a nice library list.

A library for CPS

In the next blurg, I will try to see wich library fits the best for CPS by:

  • Suming up the use cases that already need to be covered, in both Zope 2 and Zope 3.

  • Selecting the 10 best libs out there

  • Trying out all use cases with each toolkit to compare.

And please don't hesitate to react on this blurg, if you want to give more
precisions or corrections on some toolkits, or if you have opinions, comments.
These will be integrated on the page.

Thanks to Paul Everitt, for for pointing out some mistakes on this entry,
and for pointing out the XForm approach, that will be completed soon.

(Post originally written by Tarek Ziadé on the old Nuxeo blogs.)